Many consider the Industrial Revolution of the late 17th century as the “first” Industrial Revolution, since which we have witnessed two subsequent “Revolutions” and find ourselves in the midst of the Fourth Industrial Revolution, equally as notable as its predecessors, however with the potential to be even more disruptive.

The First Industrial Revolution

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(Late 18th – Early 19th Century)

The industrialisation of previously agricultural based societies.

The Second Industrial Revolution

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Late 19th – Early 20th Century

A period of industrial growth following the increased use of electrical power and metal alloys.

The Third Industrial Revolution

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Late 20th – Ongoing


Referred to as the Digital Revolution, digital technology superseding the analog electric and mechanical era. 

The Fourth Industrial Revolution

(Early 21st Century - Ongoing)

This a period of significant advancement of the Digital Revolution and has been described as the era in which new technologies have seen the disruptive influence that digitalisation is having on our society and our physical beings. 

Highlights of this current era include;


The Internet of Things (IoT) - 3D Printing - Biotechnology - Robotics

Artificial Intelligence (AI) - Nanotechnology - Driverless Vehicles